Research

The Foreign Direct Investment Regulations database highlights new research from the World Bank Group in four recent papers. Brief summaries of the papers appear below. Please keep us posted on new research or contact us with questions by emailing Tanya Primiani.

  • Arbitrating and mediating disputes : benchmarking arbitration and mediation regimes for commercial disputes related to foreign direct investment
    Author: Sophie Pouget
    Abstract: An effective commercial arbitration regime matters for foreign investors. Commercial contracts are increasingly complex and often require reliable, flexible dispute resolution mechanisms. Commercial arbitration and other alternative dispute resolution mechanisms give the parties the autonomy they need to create systems tailored to their disputes.The Arbitrating and Mediating Disputes indicators assess the legal and institutional framework for commercial arbitration, mediation and conciliation regimes in 100 economies.

  • Starting a Foreign Investment Across Sectors
    Authors: De la Medina Soto, Christian; Ghossein, Tania
    Abstract: The ease of starting a foreign investment in various sectors is a relevant consideration for investors seeking to establish an investment project abroad. Two thematic areas will be analyzed in this paper to answer the following questions: Which economies impose equity ownership restrictions on foreign investors and which procedural barriers do foreign companies face when establishing foreign-owned subsidiaries in these economies? The analysis is based on findings from the Foreign Direct Investment Regulations indicators, which measure 103 economies, on whether they restrict foreign ownership across economic sectors and on the establishment process they impose on foreign-owned companies.

  • Employing Skilled Expatriates: Benchmarking skilled immigration regimes across economies
    Author: De Smet, Dieter
    Abstract: The Employing Skilled Expatriates indicators analyze the skilled immigration regime relevant for foreign direct investment across 93 economies to provide comparable information about this regulatory space. The indicators focus on restrictions that control the inflow of skilled immigrants (quotas); the ease of hiring skilled expatriates (time and procedural steps to obtain a temporary work permit, existence of online application systems, availability of a one-stop shop and fast-tracking option); and the existence of a path to permanent residency and citizenship as well as the existence of spousal work permits.

  • Arbitrating and Mediating Disputes: Benchmarking arbitration and mediation regimes for commercial disputes related to foreign direct investment
    Author: Pouget, Sophie
    Abstract: An effective commercial arbitration regime matters for foreign investors. It gives parties the autonomy to create a dispute resolution system tailored to increasingly complex disputes. Foreign investors view arbitration as a way to mitigate risks by providing legal certainty on enforcement rights, due process, and access to justice. The Arbitrating and Mediating Disputes indicators assess the legal and institutional framework for commercial arbitration, mediation, and conciliation regimes in 100 economies.

  • Converting and Transferring Currency: Benchmarking foreign exchange restrictions to foreign direct investment across economies
    Author: Anderson, John
    Abstract: The ease of converting and transferring currency is a crucial consideration for firms investing in a foreign economy. The Converting and Transferring Currency data and indicators measure foreign exchange restrictions most relevant for foreign direct investment across economies to identify common policies and benchmark the restrictiveness of economies' foreign exchange regimes. Of 98 economies included in the analysis, 53 economies maintain generally unrestricted foreign exchange regimes for foreign direct investment. But 24 economies impose moderate to heavy restrictions across most transactions covered by the Converting and Transferring Currency indicators, with another 21 economies imposing administrative or procedural requirements.